Inverter And Different Types Of Inverter

This article is about inverter and different types of inverters. Power is an essential requirement in Commercial, Industry and Residential purposes. AC (alternate current) always favored by distance electrical transmission. By using Transformers, the voltage can be boosted easily. By boosting voltage, less current is required to deliver a given amount of power to a load, to reduce the resistive loss through conductors. The adoption of AC power has created a trend where most devices adapt AC power from an Inverter into DC power for use by the device. Unless or until AC power is not always been available and the need for mobility and simplicity has given batteries as an advantage in portable power. Therefore, for portable AC power, inverters are needed.

Definition:

A static power electronic device or circuitry that converts DC power into AC power at desired output voltage and frequency is called an Inverter. in other words, an Inverter is a circuit that converts DC power to AC power at desired output voltage and frequency. The conversion is achieved by controlled Turn-off and Turn-on devices.
The inverter never produces any power; the power only provided by the Direct Current source. The inverter can be entirely electronic or maybe a combination of mechanical effects (such as rotary) and electronic circuitry. Moving parts are not applicable in inverter during the conversion process. 
inverter and different types of inverters

Applications:

Inverters basically are primarily used in electrical power applications where high voltage and currents are present; circuit which performs the same function for electronic signals, which usually have very low current and voltage, is called an oscillator. A circuit that performs the opposite function converts AC into DC, is called a rectifier.

Applications:

Industrial view

There are few important industrial applications of an inverter are as follows.
·         Variable speed AC motor drives
·         Aircraft power supplies
·         Uninterrupted power supplies (UPS)
·         Vehicle battery drives
·         Regulated voltage and frequency power supplies
For the people, for their lives the use of alternating current is a lot, a lot of consumers who live in it will definitely require to transmit DC to AC.

Significance and Benefits of industrial Inverters:

Inverters ensure that the power supply is uninterrupted and continuous. It is used in various applications such as UPS, Speed controllers, Electric motors and etc. there are various types of inverters that are used in industry for different purposes.
Industry requires the use of industrial inverters for the continuous functioning of the industry operations. Inverters play a critical role in the manufacturing and production industry.

Importance:

Industrial inverters are high power equipment that can protect against power interruption. Different industries are functioning with power as a critical element for its operations. Industries like Power Generation, Transportation, Manufacturing, Oil Production should work without interruption. A minimum shutdown leads to Monetary loss so these industries need a proper and consistent supply of power to run operations.
                                         Pictorial view industrial inverter:
                    Therefore inverters are important in the industry to Minimize Loss
                                                Factory controller inverter

Benefits / Advantages of industrial inverters:

Followings are the benefits of industrial inverter
·         Protects Equipment
·         Avoids Downtime
·         Hot-swapping is safe
·         Boost Productivity
·         Maximize efficiency in the production process

Flaws / Disadvantages of industrial inverters:

·         Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI)
·         Tone Audibly Noise
·         Voltage Harmonically  can interrupt other Equipment

Medical Sector View

An Inverter can be used in Medical Devices. The modern world in which Hospitals and Healthcare sectors trying to provide efficient and excellent services to their patients through a heavy reliance on the flawless and precision performance of sophisticated technology based on Medical Equipments, Such as;
  • a)      Clinical Analyzers
  • b)      Imaging Modalities
  • c)      Patient Monitoring
  • d)      Cardiac Cauterization System
  • e)      Lasik Surgical Equipments
  • f)       Ambulances
g)      Other Sensitive System
By causing the power quality problem these equipment leads the damages and disruptions. In this situation, rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment are not possible.
   
  •  Operation  Theater UPS                               
  •  Ambulance Simple Inverter

Home Appliances View

Power inverters using at home are providing uninterrupted power to run household electrical devices. These inverters for home are specially designed and produced in different voltage and load capacities. In the basic design of the home inverter, a DC source is connected to a transformer through the center tap of the primary winding.
Alteration of the direction of current through the primary winding of the transformer produces alternating current (AC) in the secondary circuit. It will be then (230 /110) Voltage AC and can operate all the electrical devices.
                     The table shows the power rating of Daily usage home appliances
Appliance
Power Rating
(in watts) Standard
Current Consumption in one
hour
Compact/Lamp
8,11,18,35
0.03,0.040
Bulb
25,40,60,100
0.11,0.17
Fan
25-80
0.1-0.4
TV
80-400
0.4-2
Fridge
200-300
1-1.4
Heater
1000-3000
4.5-15
Washing Machine
800-1000
4-4.5
Microwave Oven
600-1500
2.6-6.5
Laptop
20-50
0.09-0.22
Electrical Iron
450-1000

2-3

Water Pump1/2 Hp
500-1000
2.17-4.3

Terms Related to Inverter:

a)      Watt ‘W’
b)      Watt-Hours ‘WH’
c)      Ampere ‘A’
d)      Ampere Hour ‘AH’
e)      Volt Ampere ‘VA’
Consumptions:
Depends on the wattage of the appliances used, the current consumption of the inverter can be calculated using the formula.
i = W / V Where ‘I’ is the current in amps, ‘w’ is the watts of the appliance and ‘v’ the 12volt (battery voltages).
watt Wattage an instrument is calculated using by the formula
W = (v*i) Where ‘v’ is the 230 volt AC and ‘I’ is the current consumption.
Watt rating is usually mentioned on the backside of any appliance near the power cord.
VA It indicates the ‘capacity’ of the inverter. To select the inverter size, and the given formula is useful
VA = w x inverter loss is typical around 1.15. And if the total load connected to the inverter is 400 watts then the minimum inverter size should be (400×1.15). That is 460 VA. And a 500 VA is suitable for the load.

Classification

According to the nature of the input, source Inverters are classified by nature.
 1 According to the Method of Commutation
a)      Line Commutated Inverter
b)      Forced Commutated Inverter
2 According to the Method of Connections
a)      Series Inverter
b)      Parallel Inverter
c)      Bridge Type Inverter

Different types of Inverter:

There are two basic types of Inverter
  • 1. VSI (Voltage Source Inverter)
  • 2. CSI (Current Source Inverter)

VSI (Voltage Source Inverter)

In Voltage Source Inverter, the input to the inverter is provided by a ripple-free DC voltage and the output voltage is independent regarding load. By using this property, the Voltage Source Inverter has many industrial applications such as adjustable speed drives and also in the power system.

Benefits VSI:

·         Voltage Source Inverter ‘VSI’ has a constant Voltage at its input terminals.
·         Its output Voltage never depends on Load.
·         Its output current always depends on the type of Load.

CSI (Current Source Inverter)

The current source inverter converts the input DC into AC. In CSI, input current remains constant but this current is adjustable. The current source inverter is also called a current fed inverter (CFI). The output voltage of the current source inverter is independent of the load. The magnitude and nature of the load current depend on the nature of load impedance.
  • Single Phase Inverter
  • Three Phase VSI

Single Phase Inverter:

Single-phase inverter having two kinds of design depending on the demand or requirement
  • Half Bridge Inverter      
  • Full Bridge Inverter
Half General Advantages / Disadvantages of Inverter:

Advantages:

·         It can be an energy-efficient way of changing voltage.
·         It can step voltage up or down.
·         It can provide electrical isolation between input and output.
·         It can provide an AC voltage from a DC source.
·         It can smooth out random variations in input voltage.
·         It can be used to produce 50 Hz from a 60 Hz supply or vice versa.

Disadvantages:

·         It requires rectification and smoothing on the output if the output is to be DC.
·         It may produce radio interference or audible tones.
·         It may produce AC at a non-specific frequency.
·         In different types of UPS the inverter may need to phase synchronized to the input AC power to ensure a spike free switchover.
·         It may produce excess output voltage under no load or very light load conditions.

Conclusion / Nutshell:

Ultimately found that inverters are more useful and helpful now in the modern world of the industry by installing this technology. Power outages, surges, and sags now days are the biggest threat to manufacturing industries. The damage caused due to the power failures would, of course, be devastating. Power failure for last nearly 10 seconds can result in a momentary lapse in production. This can cause damage to the equipment and machinery of the manufacturing industry. Therefore to manage power outage and power failure, efficient and robust industrial inverters must be installed. Thus industrial inverters are of greater importance to various types of industries, residential, commercial sectors and their applications.

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